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September 2016

Original Article

Mucosa Muscularis of Esophagus; Revisiting of on the Cadaver

Esra Erdoğan1 , Nurcan Ercıktı2 , Yasin Ilgaz1

1 Department of Medical Histology and Embryology, 2 Department of Anatomty, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey

DOI: 10.4328/ECAM.98


Aim: Differing information about the muscularis mucosa layer of the esophagus can be found in reference books. We aimed to reevaluate the organization of the muscularis mucosa layer based on the examination of sections of esophagi obtained from cadavers. Material and Method: Ten cadaver specimens were used in our study. Tissue sections were obtained from the level of the cricoid cartilage and of esophageal regions in close proximity with the gastroesophageal junction. These slices underwent routine histological tissue procedures and were embedded into paraffin blocks. They were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Masson’s Trichrome and examined under a light microscope. Results: We observed that the muscularis mucosa layer exists on esophagus sections obtained from the cricoid level. When muscularis mucosa layers of proximal and distal esophageal regions were compared, it was noted that the layer of the distal region was thicker than the proximal one. Discussion: There are muscularis mucosa layers in regions located at both the cricoid cartilage level and near the gastroesophageal junction regions; the layer in the proximal segment is thinner.


Esophagus; Muscularis Mucosa; Cadaver

Corresponding Author: Esra Erdoğan, Tıbbi Histoloji ve Embriyoloji ABD, Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi, 06010, Ankara, Türkiye. T.: +90 3123043533 F.: +90 3123262825 E-Mail: eserdogan@gata.edu.tr

How to cite this article: Esra Erdoğan, Nurcan Ercıktı, Yasin Ilgaz. Mucosa Muscularis of Esophagus; Revisiting of on the Cadaver. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 87-9.

Effect of Early Postoperative Noninvasive Ventilation on Arterial Blood Gas After Abdominal Surgery

Ayşe Nur Yeksan1 , Yusuf Tunalı2

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, 2 Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Faculty of Medicine, Cerrahpasa University, Istanbul, Turkey

DOI: 10.4328/ECAM.93


Aim: In the present randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of early postoperative noninvasive ventilation on gas exchange and other parameters of arterial blood gas in patients scheduled for an upper abdominal surgery. Material and Method: Forty-four patients scheduled for upper abdominal surgery were allocated randomly into two groups. The patients in Group C received oxygen and those in Group N received noninvasive ventilation for two hours postoperatively. pH, SaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3 values obtained preoperatively and postoperatively before and after the applications were compared. Results: There was no statistically significant difference betwen the groups (p>0.05) in regard to demographic data (mean age, BMI, FEV1/FVC, anesthesia and surgery time, gender distribution). Noninvasive ventilation corrected the fall in pH values more effectively than the face mask oxygen application. SaO2 dropped significantly after the operation in both groups. Change percentage in SaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3 values after the applications were similar among groups. Discussion:. There is no advantage of postoperative noninvasive ventilation in regard to early SaO2, PaCO2, or HCO3 values. Studies with more extended follow-up time and a larger number of subjects are needed for accurate data.


Abdominal; Blood Gas Analysis; Noninvasive Ventilation; Surgical Procedures

Corresponding Author: Ayşe Nur Yeksan, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Kafkas University School of Medicine, 36100, Merkez, Kars, Turkey. GSM: +905353659095 E-Mail: nur.yeksan@gmail.com

How to cite this article: Yeksan AN, Tunalı Y. Effect of Early Postoperative Noninvasive Ventilation on Arterial Blood Gas After Abdominal Surgery. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 82-6.

Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) in Adults with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Pregnants

Levent Sarıyıldız1 , Turan Akdağ2 , Ali Muhtar Tiftik3

1 Dr.Faruk Sukan Hospital, 2 Seydisehir Vocational School, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, 3 Department of Biochemistry, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey

DOI: 10.4328/ECAM.92


Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and various biochemical parameter levels in healthy females before and after puberta, adults with polycystic ovary syndrome and pregnant women. Material and Method: The present study was performed on 100 female volunteers in four groups who applied to the polyclinic in Dr. Faruk Sukan maternal and children hospital and who had no metabolic syndrome. The groups were classified as: group 1: 7-12 years of age, prepubertal period (n=25); group 2: 18-25 years of age, pregnant females in the first trimester (n=25); group 3: 18-24 years of age, suffering from ovarian cysts (n=25); group 4: 18-24 years of age postpubertal as a control group (n=25). Results: The levels of AMH were found in prepubertal females (age 7-12) and the control group (age 18-24) as 3.62 pg/dl and 3.60 pg/dl, respectively (p=0.7636). The levels of AMH were 4.11 pg/dl (p=0.8690) in the women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome. Discussion: The use of AMH in the measurement of ovarian reserve in clinical trials provides an advantage in early diagnosis of infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).


Anti-Müllerian Hormone; Ovarian Cyst; Pregnant; Fertility

Corresponding Author: Levent Sarıyıldız, Dr.Faruk Sukan Hospital, Konya, Turkey. GSM: +905052176973 E-Mail: leventsariyildiz@hotmail.com

How to cite this article: Levent Sarıyıldız, Turan Akdağ, Ali Muhtar Tiftik. Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) in Adults with Policystic Ovary Syndrome and Pregnants. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 77-81.

Nutritional Status and Nutrition Support in Breast Cancer Patients

Eyüp Murat Yılmaz1 , Berke Manoğlu2 , Aykut Soyder1 , Erkan Karacan1 , Şükrü Boylu1

1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Adnan Menderes University, 2 General Surgery Clinic, Aydın Government Hospital, Aydın, Turkey

DOI: 10.4328/ECAM.90


Aim: Nowadays, the risk of malnutrition which may develop after planning the treatment of overweight and obese female patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer, one most common cancer among women, is not considered. In this paper, we aimed to assess the nutrition status and importance for nutritional supplement in breast cancer patients in the preoperative period. Material and Method: Of the 74 volunteers participating in the study, all were newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The patients who previously received neoadjuvant therapy or underwent tumor surgery or those with other cancers were excluded from the study. The patients were applied to the MNA-SF test and their body mass indexes (BMI), types and stages of cancer were recorded. Result: The mean MNA-SF scores of the patients was calculated as 11.93. It was observed that histopathological stage of cancer diagnosis of the patients increases with age, but the MNA-SF scores decreases (p = 0.866). There was no statistical significance between histopathological stage and body mass index (BMI). MNA-SF values were low in patients losing weight (p = 0.001). Discussion: At diagnosis, whether enteral nutrition support is required for breast cancer patients can be determined via nutritional screening. While providing enteral nutrition support, performing a close nutritional screening to these patients may be beneficial by considering the negative effects of excessive weight gain during adjuvant treatment on survival.


Breast Cancer; Nutrition; Malnutrition

Corresponding Author: Eyüp Murat Yılmaz, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Aydın, Türkiye. GSM: +905056005995 E-Mail: drmyilmaz80@gmail.com

How to cite this article: Eyüp Murat Yılmaz, Berke Manoğlu, Aykut Soyder, Erkan Karacan, Şükrü Boylu. Nutritional Status and Nutrition Support in Breast Cancer Patients. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 74-6.

Evaluation of Adult Bone Tumors

Zeynep Tugba Ozdemir1 , Ceren Canbey Goret2

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Bozok University, Research and Application Hospital, Yozgat, 2 Department of Pathology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Research and Application Hospital, Canakkale, Turkey

DOI: 10.4328/ECAM.89


Aim: Although bone tumors are rare they are complex in terms of diagnosis, patient monitoring, and treatment plans. We aimed to determine the properties, frequency, and distribution of bone tumors in a group of adults. Material and Method: The histopathology reports of all bone samples of the adults that were recorded in a private pathology laboratory in Istanbul between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Results: There was a total of 78 patients, 44 male (56%) and 34 (44%) female. The average age was 42.46 years. 47 lesions (60.25%) were benign, 31 (39.75%) malignant. The lesions were most common in the lower extremities (44 cases, 56.4%) and secondly in the upper extremities (17 cases, 22%). Osteochondroma (16 cases, 34%), simple bone cysts (7 cases, 16%), and enchondroma (6 cases, 13%) were the most frequent benign lesions. 20 of 31 malignant lesions were metastasis, followed by chondrosarcoma (5 cases, 6.25%) and chondroblastic osteosarcoma (2 cases, 2.5%). 35% of the metastases were from lung cancer and 19% were from renal cell cancer. 67% of the metastatic lesions were in males. Discussion: Knowledge of the properties and diseases related to adult bone tumors is extremely important. Because they are so rare, the diagnosis may be delayed, causing significant morbidity and mortality.


Adult; Bone Tumor; Benign; Malign

Corresponding Author: Zeynep Tugba Ozdemir, Department of Internal Medicine, Bozok University Research and Application Hospital, 66200, Yozgat, Turkey. GSM: +905056401017 E-Mail: drtugba09@gmail.com

How to cite this article: Zeynep Tugba Ozdemir, Ceren Canbey Goret. Evaluation of Adult Bone Tumors. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 71-3.

Review Article

Paranasal Sinus Mucoceles

Özer Erdem Gür1 , Mustafa Kaymakcı2 , Nevreste Didem Sonbay Yılmaz3

1 Department of ENT, Antalya Education and Training Hospital, Antalya, 2 Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Balıkesir University, Balıkesir, 3 Department of ENT, Antalya Education and Training Hospital, Antalya, Turkey



Mucoceles of the paranasal sinus are benign expanding lesions that primarily occur between the fourth and seventh decades of life. Sinus mucoceles may develop due to the obstruction of the normal passageway by trauma, inflammation, mass lesions, idiopathic, or iatrogenic causes. The most common site for the evolution of a mucocele is within the frontal sinuses, followed in frequency by the ethmoidal, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses. The symptoms depend on the location and size of the mucocele. The symptoms can be classified as nasal, ophthalmologic, intracranial, and cosmetic. A mucocele can become infected, forming a mucopyocele, with a risk of infectious complications including meningitis, orbital cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. Today, the first choice of treatment is marsupialization of the mucoceles using endoscopic sinus surgery. External approaches to frontal sinus are still used, in erosion of the anterior frontal sinus wall and far lateral located lesions.


Mucocele; FESS; External Approach

Corresponding Author: Nevreste Didem Sonbay Yılmaz, Department of ENT, Antalya Education and Training Hospital, Antalya, Turkey. GSM: +905052692743 E-Mail: didem_ece@yahoo.com

How to cite this article: Özer Erdem Gür, Mustafa Kaymakcı, Nevreste Didem Sonbay Yılmaz. Paranasal Sinus Mucoceles. Eu Clin Anal Med 2016;4(3): 90-5.